Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Turkey 2

History of Turkey - a quick look at a milestone in history. Turkey is often called the "cradle of civilization" because it was home to diverse tribes and nations of people starting from 7500 BC Hittites, Phryges, Erartians, Litsiants, Lidians, Ionics, Persians, Macedonians, Catholics, Byzantines, Turks and Seluks - all lived in the territory of modern Turkey and in due course occupies an important place in the history of Turkey. The ancient sites and ruins throughout the country demonstrate the uniqueness of each civilization. Today in Turkey you can see the ruins of the first settlements in the world. The best preserved ancient cities, for example, Ephesus, Pergamum, Milet and legendary city of Troy, Assos, Likiya, Pamfiliya. Almost everywhere, wherever you went in the territory of Turkey, you will come to one of the most ancient places of the world, even those described in the Bible. Two of the seven wonders of the world are in Turkey - the temple of Artemis and mausoleum.

At the location of its territory and in its multitude of works of ancient era, Ephesus is one of the largest and most attractive cities in the world. At the same time, this center of tourism zone Aegean Sea. This small town, where arriving by sea each day countless tourists, the town with numerous hotels, the town where you can relax, take a walk, enriched, entrance ... Ephesus was build on the grid layout famous in its time Gipodamus town planner, but unfortunately as a result of British archaeologists that coincided with a period of decline of the Ottoman Empire, part detected here priceless works of sculpture are in the British Museum.

The first began settling in these places 2 millennium BC, but in the full sense of the word he was in town in 11 BC, thanks Ionics after several unsuccessful attempts resistance, was forced to conquer, until the arrival of Alexander the Great. In connection with the death of Alexander, the city came under the power of one of its military leaders, some Lisimahosa and moved to the valley between the mountains and Byulbul Ponair, which is located today. Then, finding themselves in the first of Bergam kingdom, and later under the domination of Rome, Ephesus survived the peak of its heyday in this century, becoming one of the major cities of ancient times. Thus, the temple of Artemis era of Hellenism can recognize one of the seven wonders of the world.

Milet was the most powerful and rich Ionic's cities in Asia Minor. Milet, during its heyday, had a 80-90 colonies, including Kizik, Sinop, Abidos, Tommy, etc. Even in Egypt was Milet's colony (Navkratis). Through its colonies Milet considered marine empire. In addition, the ancient world he had deserved glory scientific center. Here was written the first Greek alphabet, formulated the foundation of astronomy, mathematics, physics, biology and created the first scientific instruments: solar clock, a model of the celestial sphere, gnomon - a device to determine latitude seats. Fales, and Anaksimandr Anaksimen become creators of school of philosophy. In Milet worked "father of history" Herodotus and the "father of geometry" Pythagoras.
Milet known as the first city, with the erection of which were applied planning principles used to the present day.

The most magnificent building in Milet is located immediately outside the entrance. The Rome theatre with capacity 15 thousand people, was built in 2 AD on the slope of a hill in the city only on a foundation of a more ancient Greek theater. Amphitheatre diameter of 140 m and height - 30 meters. At the top of the hill above the theater preserved ruins of the Byzantine castle.
On the coast bay was built a colonnade leading to the east to the temple dedicated to Apollo Delphi, the patron of the seafarers, the ships and the ports. Sanctuary of Apollo Delphi was the main place of worship in Milet. It began the "Holy Road", leading to the temple of Apollo in Didime.
To the east of "Holy Road" was built Milet's largest fountain.To the south of it lie the ruins of a Byzantine church. To the west of it preserved ruins of a temple Serapiya (3 AD), and immediately behind him at the foot of the hill – the bathhouse Faustin, named in honor of the wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Directly after the village is located Ilyas Bey Mosque, built in the early 15 century. The mosque gives a clear enough picture of the early Turkish-Ottoman architecture, especially admire clever carving on the stone. While continuing to walk in Milet, you will see the ruins of granary bread, monumental gate Agora, the municipality building, gymnasium, dolphinarium, holy places and other buildings.

Assos is located in an extremely beautiful place on the Aegean coast, opposite the island of Lesbos. It's history goes back in time for the Great Hittite king Tutaliya 4 (13 century BC), The city is famous by historical monuments such as the ruins of a temple of Athena (6 BC). Much of the arts found there has gone to museums like the Louvre. Aristotle lived here and opened an Academy.

Troy was a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Iliad.
A small minority of writers argue that Troy was not in Anatolia, but located elsewhere: England, Croatia, and Scandinavia have been proposed. These theories have not been accepted by mainstream scholars.
The archaeological site of Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.
Today there is a Turkish town called Truva in the vicinity of the archaeological site, but this town has grown up recently to service the tourist trade. The archaeological site is officially called Troia by the Turkish government and appears as such on many maps. The visitor sees a highly commercialised site, with a large wooden horse built as a playground for children, then shops and a museum. The archaeological site itself is, as a recent writer said, "a ruin of a ruin," because the site has been frequently excavated, and because Schliemann's archaeological methods were very destructive: in his conviction that the city of Priam would be found in the earliest layers, he demolished many interesting structures from later eras, including all of the house walls from Troy II. For many years also the site was unguarded and was thoroughly looted.

Antalya is on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Bathrobe season here starts in April, ending by November, in July-August air temperature can reach 40 ° C. North wind does not reach Antalya, so here are growing olives, bananas and citrus variety.

Most recently, Kemer was a small fishing village. But everything changes and now it is one of the best tourist centres of Turkey (10 000 inhabitants). In Kemer quietly and calmly, you can rest well with children.

Pine forests and clean beaches - suitable for families.


Pamukkale (The Cotton City) is not close to the coast. The road from Kusadasi and Marmaris took more than 3 hours. But it does not prevent Pamukkale be one of the most popular places in Turkey.
Curative properties of local sources were known in ancient times. On the escarpment rocks formed natural mini-pools filled with mineral water, whose temperature reaches 38 ° C.

Bodrum lies at the junction of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas.
Bodrum is a place where intellectuals rest. At the city adjacent to the peninsula are many small, cozy and very picturesque bays.
His oldest monument is the tomb, built from Artemis II in honor of the death of her husband - King Mousolus, and subsequently became one of the seven wonders of the world. According to ancient historian Pino, tomb consisted of four parts: located at the bottom of the high base on which the gallery of thirty-six columns, but on top of the roof of the twenty-four steps statues stood Mausoleums and his wife. In the XIV century The Mausoleum was destroyed by strong earthquakes. Statues, decorated the roof of the tombs, as well as those that were found inside, now stored in the British Museum, a stone rubble of the building used later for the crusaders knights-built fortress Bodrum.


Marmaris is located at the crossroads of the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. Mountains with pine forests, small sandy beaches, incense trees, picturesque bay - all this makes Marmaris attractive for recreation. In the local harbor is located at the same time may be up to thousands of yachts and it starts from here, many sea excursions.
The population of Marmaris is 28 000 inhabitants. Marmaris found the most environmentally friendly Mediterranean resort.

The main attraction is the castle-fortress island Gyuverdzhin. A long time it served to protect themselves from enemy attacks, as evidenced by the impressive tower with loopholes. In the XVI century, its walls have become a haven for the famous pirate Khair al-Din, which many called simply Barbarossa, and for this reason that the castle is often called "Pirate castle". In our time, its central part turned into a museum.
The most attractive part of the resort Kusadasi - an area Kale, shelters inside the city walls. Small narrow streets, old traditional houses, bazaars and majestic coloured mosque helped to imagine how the city looked like centuries ago.
Kaleychi Mosque was built in 1618 in Grand vizier Ekyuz Mehmed Pasha and is the most impressive mosque in Kusadasi. It occupies an area of 1800 square kilometers and can accommodate 550 people at the same time. Central part of mosque dome crowned by a huge lead, supported by 12 arches.
In 20 kilometers south of Kusadasi, near the town famous monastery located Davutlar Kurshunlu. It is assumed that he was above the Byzantine Orthodox Church, built in the Century II. Within the walls of a monastery located dining room, kitchen, basement cell monks. There are also a small chapel and cemetery. With a height of 600 meters above sea level, namely, the high was built monastery, a picturesque view of Kusadasi, Gyuzelchamly and the island of Samos.
Not far from Kusadasi is located one of the largest thermal centers in Turkey - famous Balchova sources. It's a modern thermal complex, where you can go through treatment mineral and mud baths.
Near the entrance of the Dilek Peninsula National Park, about 30 kilometers south of the resort Kusadasi, Zeus cave is located, surrounded by olive trees and bright flowers. Inside the cave is a pool with crystal-clear water, which is read as myths, repeatedly bathed Zeus with the most beautiful girls nearby village.

Ski resorts
Most of the Turkish territory is covered by mountains. In central and southern Anatolian peaks have height from 2500 to 5000 m, the thickness of snow cover in winter time is 3 hours. Ski resorts are gradually developing, but now they have all the attributes of modern international resorts: training instructors, the daily care of the slopes, comfortable hotel with swimming pools, fitness centers and own lifts.

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